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Aaron's rod was received by God because it was put inside the Ark of the Covenant along with the tables of the 10 commandments and a pot of the manna God provided for the Israelites to sustain them on their journey to the promised land. At some point in the history of the Ark of the Covenant, the pot of a manna and Aaron's rod were lost. At the dedication of Solomon's temple, only the tablets of the 10 commandments remained. See 1 Kings 8:9.
Numbers 17:10 And the LORD said to Moses, "Bring Aaron’s rod back before the Testimony, to be kept as a sign against the rebels, that you may put their complaints away from Me, lest they die."
Hebrews 9:2-4 For a tabernacle was prepared: the first part, in which was the lampstand, the table, and the showbread, which is called the sanctuary; and behind the second veil, the part of the tabernacle which is called the Holiest of All, which had the golden censer and the ark of the covenant overlaid on all sides with gold, in which were the golden pot that had the manna, Aaron’s rod that budded, and the tablets of the covenant;
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